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Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für enigma im Online-Wörterbuch ubertext.se (Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung für 'enigma' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Die Enigma (griechisch αἴνιγμα aínigma, deutsch ‚Rätsel', Eigenschreibweise auch: ENIGMA) ist eine Rotor-Schlüsselmaschine, die im Zweiten Weltkrieg zur. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'enigma' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "enigma" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen.
Übersetzung von enigma – Englisch–Deutsch Wörterbuch. enigma. noun. /iˈniɡmə/. ○. anything difficult to understand; a mystery. das Rätsel. Übersetzung im Kontext von „Enigma“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Now we have to add the function that Enigma will call to execute our. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "enigma" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen.
The Hessians were German soldiers who fought in the American Revolution. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:.
The brilliant Polish mathematician Marian Rejewski cracked Enigma by , only to have the unsuspecting Germans add two rotors to the machine.
See figure. In essence, the Ultra project enabled the Allies to read the mind of the…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox!
Since there were only three pawls, the fourth rotor never stepped, but could be manually set into one of 26 possible positions. A device that was designed, but not implemented before the war's end, was the Lückenfüllerwalze gap-fill wheel that implemented irregular stepping.
It allowed field configuration of notches in all 26 positions. If the number of notches was a relative prime of 26 and the number of notches were different for each wheel, the stepping would be more unpredictable.
Like the Umkehrwalze-D it also allowed the internal wiring to be reconfigured. The current entry wheel Eintrittswalze in German , or entry stator , connects the plugboard to the rotor assembly.
If the plugboard is not present, the entry wheel instead connects the keyboard and lampboard to the rotor assembly.
While the exact wiring used is of comparatively little importance to security, it proved an obstacle to Rejewski's progress during his study of the rotor wirings.
It took inspired guesswork for Rejewski to penetrate the modification. With the exception of models A and B , the last rotor came before a 'reflector' German: Umkehrwalze , meaning 'reversal rotor' , a patented feature unique to Enigma among the period's various rotor machines.
The reflector connected outputs of the last rotor in pairs, redirecting current back through the rotors by a different route.
The reflector ensured that Enigma would be self-reciprocal ; thus, with two identically configured machines, a message could be encrypted on one and decrypted on the other, without the need for a bulky mechanism to switch between encryption and decryption modes.
The reflector allowed a more compact design, but it also gave Enigma the property that no letter ever encrypted to itself. This was a severe cryptological flaw that was subsequently exploited by codebreakers.
In Model 'C', the reflector could be inserted in one of two different positions. In Model 'D', the reflector could be set in 26 possible positions, although it did not move during encryption.
In the Abwehr Enigma, the reflector stepped during encryption in a manner similar to the other wheels. In the German Army and Air Force Enigma, the reflector was fixed and did not rotate; there were four versions.
The original version was marked 'A', and was replaced by Umkehrwalze B on 1 November A third version, Umkehrwalze C was used briefly in , possibly by mistake, and was solved by Hut 6.
The plugboard Steckerbrett in German permitted variable wiring that could be reconfigured by the operator visible on the front panel of Figure 1; some of the patch cords can be seen in the lid.
It was introduced on German Army versions in , and was soon adopted by the Reichsmarine German Navy.
The plugboard contributed more cryptographic strength than an extra rotor. Enigma without a plugboard known as unsteckered Enigma could be solved relatively straightforwardly using hand methods; these techniques were generally defeated by the plugboard, driving Allied cryptanalysts to develop special machines to solve it.
A cable placed onto the plugboard connected letters in pairs; for example, E and Q might be a steckered pair.
The effect was to swap those letters before and after the main rotor scrambling unit. For example, when an operator pressed E , the signal was diverted to Q before entering the rotors.
Up to 13 steckered pairs might be used at one time, although only 10 were normally used. Current flowed from the keyboard through the plugboard, and proceeded to the entry-rotor or Eintrittswalze.
Each letter on the plugboard had two jacks. Inserting a plug disconnected the upper jack from the keyboard and the lower jack to the entry-rotor of that letter.
The plug at the other end of the crosswired cable was inserted into another letter's jacks, thus switching the connections of the two letters.
Other features made various Enigma machines more secure or more convenient. Some M4 Enigmas used the Schreibmax , a small printer that could print the 26 letters on a narrow paper ribbon.
This eliminated the need for a second operator to read the lamps and transcribe the letters. The Schreibmax was placed on top of the Enigma machine and was connected to the lamp panel.
To install the printer, the lamp cover and light bulbs had to be removed. It improved both convenience and operational security; the printer could be installed remotely such that the signal officer operating the machine no longer had to see the decrypted plaintext.
Another accessory was the remote lamp panel Fernlesegerät. For machines equipped with the extra panel, the wooden case of the Enigma was wider and could store the extra panel.
A lamp panel version could be connected afterwards, but that required, as with the Schreibmax , that the lamp panel and light bulbs be removed.
In , the Luftwaffe introduced a plugboard switch, called the Uhr clock , a small box containing a switch with 40 positions. It replaced the standard plugs.
After connecting the plugs, as determined in the daily key sheet, the operator turned the switch into one of the 40 positions, each producing a different combination of plug wiring.
Most of these plug connections were, unlike the default plugs, not pair-wise. The Enigma transformation for each letter can be specified mathematically as a product of permutations.
Then the encryption E can be expressed as. After each key press, the rotors turn, changing the transformation.
For example, if the right-hand rotor R is rotated n positions, the transformation becomes. Similarly, the middle and left-hand rotors can be represented as j and k rotations of M and L.
The encryption transformation can then be described as. Combining three rotors from a set of five, each of the 3 rotor settings with 26 positions, and the plugboard with ten pairs of letters connected, the military Enigma has ,,,,,, different settings nearly quintillion or about 67 bits.
A German Enigma operator would be given a plaintext message to encrypt. After setting up his machine, he would type the message on the Enigma keyboard.
For each letter pressed, one lamp lit indicating a different letter according to a pseudo-random substitution determined by the electrical pathways inside the machine.
The letter indicated by the lamp would be recorded, typically by a second operator, as the cyphertext letter. The action of pressing a key also moved one or more rotors so that the next key press used a different electrical pathway, and thus a different substitution would occur even if the same plaintext letter were entered again.
For each key press there was rotation of at least the right hand rotor and less often the other two, resulting in a different substitution alphabet being used for every letter in the message.
This process continued until the message was completed. The cyphertext recorded by the second operator would then be transmitted, usually by radio in Morse code , to an operator of another Enigma machine.
In use, the Enigma required a list of daily key settings and auxiliary documents. In German military practice, communications were divided into separate networks, each using different settings.
These communication nets were termed keys at Bletchley Park , and were assigned code names , such as Red , Chaffinch , and Shark. Each unit operating in a network was given the same settings list for its Enigma, valid for a period of time.
The procedures for German Naval Enigma were more elaborate and more secure than those in other services and employed auxiliary codebooks.
Navy codebooks were printed in red, water-soluble ink on pink paper so that they could easily be destroyed if they were endangered or if the vessel was sunk.
An Enigma machine's setting its cryptographic key in modern terms; Schlüssel in German specified each operator-adjustable aspect of the machine:.
For a message to be correctly encrypted and decrypted, both sender and receiver had to configure their Enigma in the same way; rotor selection and order, ring positions, plugboard connections and starting rotor positions must be identical.
Except for the starting positions, these settings were established beforehand, distributed in key lists and changed daily.
For example, the settings for the 18th day of the month in the German Luftwaffe Enigma key list number see image were as follows:.
Enigma was designed to be secure even if the rotor wiring was known to an opponent, although in practice considerable effort protected the wiring configuration.
Most of the key was kept constant for a set time period, typically a day. A different initial rotor position was used for each message, a concept similar to an initialisation vector in modern cryptography.
The reason is that encrypting many messages with identical or near-identical settings termed in cryptanalysis as being in depth , would enable an attack using a statistical procedure such as Friedman's Index of coincidence.
The exact method used was termed the indicator procedure. Design weakness and operator sloppiness in these indicator procedures were two of the main weaknesses that made cracking Enigma possible.
One of the earliest indicator procedures for the Enigma was cryptographically flawed and allowed Polish cryptanalysts to make the initial breaks into the plugboard Enigma.
The procedure had the operator set his machine in accordance with the secret settings that all operators on the net shared.
The settings included an initial position for the rotors the Grundstellung , say, AOH. The operator turned his rotors until AOH was visible through the rotor windows.
At that point, the operator chose his own arbitrary starting position for the message he would send. An operator might select EIN , and that became the message setting for that encryption session.
This was then transmitted, at which point the operator would turn the rotors to his message settings, EIN in this example, and then type the plaintext of the message.
In this example, EINEIN emerged on the lamps, so the operator would learn the message setting that the sender used to encrypt this message.
The receiving operator would set his rotors to EIN , type in the rest of the ciphertext, and get the deciphered message.
This indicator scheme had two weaknesses. First, the use of a global initial position Grundstellung meant all message keys used the same polyalphabetic substitution.
In later indicator procedures, the operator selected his initial position for encrypting the indicator and sent that initial position in the clear.
The second problem was the repetition of the indicator, which was a serious security flaw. The message setting was encoded twice, resulting in a relation between first and fourth, second and fifth, and third and sixth character.
These security flaws enabled the Polish Cipher Bureau to break into the pre-war Enigma system as early as The early indicator procedure was subsequently described by German cryptanalysts as the "faulty indicator technique".
During World War II, codebooks were only used each day to set up the rotors, their ring settings and the plugboard.
For each message, the operator selected a random start position, let's say WZA , and a random message key, perhaps SXT.
Assume the result was UHL. He then set up the message key, SXT , as the start position and encrypted the message. Next, he used this SXT message setting as the start position to decrypt the message.
This way, each ground setting was different and the new procedure avoided the security flaw of double encoded message settings.
This procedure was used by Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe only. The Kriegsmarine procedures on sending messages with the Enigma were far more complex and elaborate.
Prior to encryption the message was encoded using the Kurzsignalheft code book. The Kurzsignalheft contained tables to convert sentences into four-letter groups.
A great many choices were included, for example, logistic matters such as refuelling and rendezvous with supply ships, positions and grid lists, harbour names, countries, weapons, weather conditions, enemy positions and ships, date and time tables.
Another codebook contained the Kenngruppen and Spruchschlüssel : the key identification and message key. The Army Enigma machine used only the 26 alphabet characters.
Punctuation was replaced with rare character combinations. A space was omitted or replaced with an X.
The X was generally used as full-stop. Some punctuation marks were different in other parts of the armed forces.
The Kriegsmarine replaced the comma with Y and the question mark with UD. The Kriegsmarine , using the four rotor Enigma, had four-character groups.
Frequently used names or words were varied as much as possible. To make cryptanalysis harder, messages were limited to characters.
Longer messages were divided into several parts, each using a different message key. The character substitutions by the Enigma machine as a whole can be expressed as a string of letters with each position occupied by the character that will replace the character at the corresponding position in the alphabet.
Since the operation of an Enigma machine encoding a message is a series of such configurations, each associated with a single character being encoded, a sequence of such representations can be used to represent the operation of the machine as it encodes a message.
For example, the process of encoding the first sentence of the main body of the famous "Dönitz message"  to. The character mappings for a given configuration of the machine are in turn the result of a series of such mappings applied by each pass through a component of the machine: the encoding of a character resulting from the application of a given component's mapping serves as the input to the mapping of the subsequent component.
For example, the 4th step in the encoding above can be expanded to show each of these stages using the same representation of mappings and highlighting for the encoded character:.
Here the encoding begins trivially with the first "mapping" representing the keyboard which has no effect , followed by the plugboard, configured as AE.
The Enigma family included multiple designs. The earliest were commercial models dating from the early s. Starting in the mids, the German military began to use Enigma, making a number of security-related changes.
Various nations either adopted or adapted the design for their own cipher machines. An estimated , Enigma machines were constructed.
After the end of World War II, the Allies sold captured Enigma machines, still widely considered secure, to developing countries. On 23 February , [ failed verification ] Arthur Scherbius applied for a patent for a ciphering machine that used rotors.
They approached the German Navy and Foreign Office with their design, but neither agency was interested. Chiffriermaschinen AG began advertising a rotor machine, Enigma model A , which was exhibited at the Congress of the International Postal Union in The machine was heavy and bulky, incorporating a typewriter.
In Enigma model B was introduced, and was of a similar construction. Model C was smaller and more portable than its predecessors. It lacked a typewriter, relying on the operator; hence the informal name of "glowlamp Enigma" to distinguish it from models A and B.
The Enigma C quickly gave way to Enigma D She was sold after her former owner, Larry Ellison , took delivery of Rising Sun , the 6th largest private yacht in the world.
Enigma is renowned for her design, including a pyramidal superstructure surrounded by convex windows and an agile design that enables her to achieve a maximum speed of 36 knots.
Because of the amount of fuel consumed when using the turbine engine for full speed cruising, the owner also commissioned a fuel tanker to provide refueling capabilities mid-journey.
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